(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)
During the time period of 1000 to 1026, Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded India seventeen times. He raided as far as the present state of Uttar Pradesh in north central India. At that time, India was just a bundle of states. All the states were independent. These states were busy fighting against one another. They used to destroy one another’s territory.
These were major kingdoms of Northern India: –
Multan and Sindh
Arabs conquered Sindh in 712. Then they occupied Multan as well.
When Mahmud Ghaznavi Invaded India, Fateh Daud was the ruler of Multan. Sindh was independent from Multan and was under control of Arabs.
The Hindushahi Kingdom
From river chinab to Hindukush mountains, there was the Hindushahi Kingdom. Kabul was its part. In the north of this kingdom there was Kashmir and in south there was Multan.
For two centuries, Arabs tried to occupy Hindushahi Kingdom, but in vain. In about 988, the Turks succeeded to win the Kabul, which was the part of Hindushahi Kingdom, for sometime.
At the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi’s invasion, Jaipal was the ruler of Kabul.
The Kashmir was a very important kingdom in Northern India. 958 to 1003, Didda, a woman was the ruler of Kashmir, when Mahmud invaded India.
When Harsh was the ruler, the kingdom of Kannauj was a very rich and famous.
At the time of Mahmud’s invasion, Rajpal was the ruler of Kannauj.
A powerful and brave king ‘Gandda’ was the ruler of Kalinjar, when Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked this country.
Mahmud did not reach Bengal. At that time, Mahipal was ruling the Kingdom.
Before ninth century, Malwa was under control of Kannauj Kingdom, but then Krishan Raja declared Malwa an independent state. During the time period of 1010 to 1054, Bhoj was the king of Malwa Kingdom.
Bhoj was a very powerful king. He was a brave man. Mahmud did not dare to attack on Malwa.
A former part of Kannauj Kingdom, Gujrat declared its independence in tenth century, when Mulraj became its king.
When Mahmud invaded India, Bhimdev was the ruler of this kingdom.
Other small kingdoms
There were some other small kingdoms in Northern India. For example, Bhera, Nagarkot, Thanesar and Gwalior.