Tag Archives: Muslim Rule in India


(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Born at Kabul in March 1508, Humayun, ‘the fortunate’, was the eldest of Babar. Mahim Begam was his mother. He had three brothers, viz., Kamran, Askari and Hindal. Babar made special arrangements for his education. Humayun learnt Turkish, Arabic and Persian languages. He studied mathematics, philosophy, astronomy and astrology.

At the age of 20, he was appointed the Governor of Badakshan. He participated in the Battle of Panipat and Kanwah. In 1526, Babar gave him the district of Hissar Firoza. He also got the land of Sambhal. He was sent again to Badakshan in 1527, but was brought to Agra in 1529, on account of his illness.

On December 26, 1530, Babar died. The Prime Minister Khalifa Nizam-ud-Din Ali placed Mahdi Khwaja on the throne of Agra. Mahdi Khwaja was the brother-in-law of Babar. There was confusion for four days. At last, Humayun became the King and seated himself on the throne of Agra on December 30, 1530.

When Humayun became the King, he found himself in very difficult situation. There were three main enemies. In East, the Afghans were a big problem, under the leadership of Sher Khan. In South, Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujrat, became powerful. In Northwest, his own brother Kamran was a danger.

Humayun gave Sambhal to Askari and Alwar to Hindal. He gave the provinces of Kabul and Kandhar to Kamran. But this was not enough for Kamran. Kamran brought the Punjab under his control by force. Humayun did not think it prudent to put up a fight with Kamran and consequently agreed to give the province of the Punjab to him. Humayun also gave Kamran the district of Hissar Firoza. It was a suicidal step, because this gave Kamran control over the high road between Delhi and the Punjab. Humayun was deprived of the territory, which had been under control of his father. Punjab and Kabul was the source from which he could have recruited his new army. Only a new conquered empire was under his control, over which his hold was not secure.

Expedition of Kalinjar (1531)

In 1531, Humayun marched towards Kalinjar in Bundelkhand and besieged the fort. He was informed that the Rajput ruler of Kalinjar was hobnobbing with the Afghans. The siege of the fort lasted for several months. Humayun could not defeat the King of Kalinjar. At last, Humayun made peace and accepted huge money from the ruler of Kalinjar, because he came to know that the Afghans created disturbance in the East.

Battle of Dauhria (1532)

The Afghans were marching on to the province of Jaunpur. They had advanced as far as the Barabanki District.

Now, Humayun advanced to Jaunpur. He defeated the Afghans in the Battle Dauhria, near Lacknow in August 1532.

The siege of Chunar (1532)

After defeating the Afghans, Humayun advanced to Chunar and besieged the fort. The fort of Chunar was under control of Sher Khan, a big enemy. The siege lasted from September to December 1532 and then Humayun accepted a purely unthinking submission.

It was a big mistake on the part of Humayun. It was clear that Sher Khan was trying to become the King of Delhi and Agra. So, Humayun ought to have crushed his power. Humayun paid a big price for this mistake later on.

He made another mistake, when he returned to Agra. He forgot about his enemies. He wasted a year and a half (1533-34) in feasts and festivities in Agra and Delhi. He distributed gifts to the nobles. He also spent money on building a big citadel at Delhi, which was called ‘Din Panah’.

When Humayun was busy in feasts, Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujrat, was increasing his power day by day.

The War Against Bahadur Shah (1535-36 A. D.)

Bahadur Shah was a very ambitious man. He wanted to become the King of King of Delhi and Agra. He attacked Malwa in 1531. He captured the fort of Raisina in 1532. In 1533, he defeated the Sisodia chief of Chittaur.

Bahadur Shah gave shelter to Mohammad Zamir Khan and Alam Khan Lodhi, who were the enemies of Humayun. Bahadur Shah refused to hand them over to Humayun, when he requested to do so.
Now, war with Bahadur Shah was inevitable. Humayun advanced to Gujrat against Bahadur Shah in 1534 A.D. At this time, Bahadur Shah was besieging the fort of Chittaur. Queen Karnawati of Chittaur appealed to Humayun for help. He marched towards Chittaur, but camped near Sarangpur and did not help the Queen.

Bahadur Shah succeeded to capture Chittaur. Now, Humayun advanced to Chittaur. The opposing armies collided near Mandsaur, about 60 miles far from Chittaur. Bahadur Shah was defeated. He ran away and took shelter in the Fort of Mandu.

When Humayun besieged the fort of Mandu and captured it, Bahadur Shah ran away to Champaner. Champaner was also besieged by Humayun, though he could not capture it. Now, Bahadur Shah took refuge in the island of Diu.

Humayun returned to Champaner and captured the fort. He got the treasure of Bahadur Shah, which was kept in a pond. By 1535, the conquest of Gujrat was completed.

Now, Humayun made another mistake. He made no arrangement to consolidate his position. He wasted a lot of time in merry making. He squandered away the treasure he got from Champaner.

Humayun appointed his brother Askari as Governor of Gujrat. Askari started to merry making and mismanaged the affairs of the state. Meanwhile Bahadur Shah increased his power. He got back a large number of towns. With the help of the local chiefs, he attacked on Askari. Askari ran away and Bahadur Shah got back all the Gujrat.

The War Against Sher Khan (1537-39)

Humayun returned to Agra. He wasted about one year (from August 1536 to July 1537) in merry making. Sher Khan was strengthening his position in Bengal and Bihar. In 1536, Sher Khan defeated the King of Bengal.

In 1537, Humayun decided to do something against Sher Khan. He proceeded to the East and besieged the Fort of Chunar, which belonged to Sher Khan. His old and wise advisor Khan Khana Yousaf Khail advised him to capture Gaur, the capital of Bengal, but Humayun was not agree to his advice. The siege lasted for six months (from October 1537 to March 1538).

After capturing the Fort of Chunar in March 1538, he advanced to Banaras. He stayed there for sometime. Then, he decided to conquer Bengal and reached Teliagarhi in May 1538. In August 1538, Humayun reached Gaur. Here, he again wasted his time (about 8 months) in merry making.

When Humayun was busy in merry making; his brother Hindal left Bihar and reached Agra. It was a dangerous situation of Humayun. So, he decided to return to Agra immediately. In March 1539, he started his return journey.

The Battle of Chausa (June 1539)

In March 1539, Humayun started his return journey, from Gaur to Agra. Sher Khan was watching him very carefully. He collected his army near Chausa, so that he could block the road to Agra.

When Humayun reached Chausa with army, he found that only a decisive victory over Sher Khan could have helped him to reach Agra. Both the armies faced each other for three months. No one started the fighting.

After three months, the rains started. The Mughal army’s encampment was flooded. It created great confusion in the armies of Humayun.

Sher Khan was aware of it. He already selected a high land for his army’s encampment. When the Mughal army’s encampment was flooded, Sher Khan found the opportunity he was waiting for. On June 26, 1539, he attacked on Humayun.

This attack resulted in stampede in Humayun’s army. His army men started to run all round. Hundreds of his men were killed by Sher Khan’s army and hundreds were drowned in the river, which was flooded badly.

Humayun lost two of his wives and a daughter. About 8,000 Mughal soldiers were killed. Humayun himself saved his life with help of Nizam, a water-carrier. It was a big defeat for Humayun.

Now, Sher Khan became the ruler of Bengal and Bihar. He took up the title of ‘Sher Shah’.

The Battle of Kannauj (May 17, 1540)

After his defeat at Chausa, Humayun reached Agra. He called his brothers and asked for help. Kamran offered to fight, but he was not reliable man. So, Humayun wanted Kamran to lend him only his troops. When the differences between Humayun and Kamran could not be composed, Kamran left with 20,000 troops to Lahore. Humayun wasted about six months in looking for help. Somehow, he managed to raise an army.

When Sher Shah came to know that Humayun did not get help from Kamran; he marched towards Agra with a powerful army. Humayun decided to face Sher Shah and reached near Kannauj. Sher Khan stopped him. Both the armies faced each other for one month.

It was heavy rain on May 15, 1540. The Mughal army’s encampment was flooded. When the Mughals were carrying their material to a safe place, Sher Shah attacked them.

The Mughal artillery did not play any part, as it could not be taken to the front, when Sher Shah started the attack.

Humayun fought for sometime. Most of his men ran away. At last, Humayun became fugitive and Sher Shah became the King of Delhi and Agra.

The Expulsion of Humayun (1541 to 1555 A.D.)

After his defeat at Kannauj, Humayun returned to Agra, but Sher Shah chased him. Now, Humayun went to Punjab. His brother Kamran did not help him. Ultimately, he decided to go to Sindh.

After facing so many problems, he reached Amarkot. He got shelter from the King of Amarkot. In 1542, his son Akbar was born there.

Humayun went to Persia, where the King Shah Tahmasp welcomed him. The Shah promised to help Humayun, and in return Humayun became Shia. The Shah agreed to give 14,000 men to Humayun on the condition that Kandhar was to be given to him. With this help, Humayun captured Kandhar and handed over it to the Shah.

After the death of Shah Tahmasp, Humayun put Kandhar under his control. In November 1544, he captured Kabul and Kamran ran away to Sindh. In 1546, Kamran recaptured Kabul. In 1547, Humayun recaptured Kabul after a siege. In 1549, Kamran occupied Kandhar. Humayun defeated him and made him prisoner. Kamran’s eyes were taken out and he was sent on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Kamran died in Mecca in 1557. Hindal was killed in a battlefield. Askari was also sent on a pilgrimage, but he died in his way to Mecca.

The Restoration of Humayun (July 1555)

Sher Shah, the King of Delhi, died in 1545. After his death, his son Islam Shah became the King. He ruled up to 1553. Mohammad Adil Shah succeeded him. He was very weak ruler. Ibrahim Shah and Sikandar Shah challenged his authority. Many battles were fought among the various rivals.

It was a big opportunity for Humayun. He advanced towards India and reached Peshawar in December 1554. In February 1555, he captured Lahore. Dipalpur was occupied in March 1555. In June 1555, he defeated Sikandar Sur near Sarhind.

Humayun entered Delhi in July 1555, after an interval of about 15 years, though he was not destined to rule for long.


On January 24, 1556, Humayun slipped from the famous building know as ‘Din Panah’. After two days, he died on January 26, 1556. His body was buried at Delhi.

The Mughal Dynasty: Babur

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Zahir-ud-Din Mohammad was born in 1483. Babur was his surname. The blood of two great conquerors of Asia, Mongols and Turks, Changiz khan Timur, mixed in Babur’s veins. He was the son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, who was the ruler of Farghana, in Turkistan.

Umar Sheikh Mirza, the father of Babur, did not have good relations with adjoining states. He made special arrangements for Babur’s education. Babur studied Persian, Arabic and Turkish languages. He also got special military training. He father himself taught him political education.

As a King of Farghana

Umar Sheikh Mirza died on June 8, 1494, when Babur was eleven years and four months old child. He succeeded his father and became the King of Farghana. His enemies surrounded him on all sides. Everyone wanted to take advantage of his childhood and inexperience.

His uncle Ahmad Mirza, the ruler of Samarkand, attacked him. Babur saved his kingdom successfully. When Ahmad Mirza died in 1495, Babur decided to have his revenge. He took full advantage of the confusion that prevailed in Samarkand after the death of Ahmad Mirza. He attacked on Samarkand and besieged it. The besiege of Samarkand lasted for seven months and in November, 1497 he captured it.

When Babur was celebrating his victory in Samarkand, he fell ill. His enemies in Farghana took advantage of his sickness. His ministers gave out that he was dead and put on the throne the younger brother of Babur, Jahangir.

When Babur recovered from his sickness; he marched from Samarkand to recover Farghana. He could not capture Farghana. When he returned to Samarkand, he came to know that even Samarkand was occupied in his absence by Ali, his cousin. Now, Babur was not the king of any place. It was the year of 1498.

Babur wandered for more than a year. In June 1499, he recaptured the capital of Farghana.

Now, Babur decided to capture Samarkand again. He conquered Samarkand for the second time, but he was forced by the Uzbek chief, Shaibani Khan to leave the same. He lost Farghana too for the second time in the same year. After these ups and downs of life, Babur was left with nothing in 1502. It was good to try luck somewhere else. So, he left his native land.

The Conquest of Kabul

There was political chaos in Kabul after 1501. Babur took advantage of it and occupied Kabul in 1504. As the King of Kabul, he ruled from 1504 to 1526. In 1520, Babur captured Badakshan and put it under the charge of Humayun, his son. He captured Kandhar in 1522 and gave it to Kamran, his son.

Samarkand Captured and Lost for the Third Time

Babur still wanted to capture Samarkand. Shaibani Khan, the ruler of Samarkand, had died. So, Babur again tried his luck to conquer Samarkand. He entered into an alliance with the Shah of Persia and captured Samarkand every easily.

However, he could not sit on the throne of Samarkand for long. Within less than a year, Ubaid Ullah Khan drove him out of Samarkand.

The Expeditions of India

After his failure in Samarkand, Babur paid his attention to the conquest of India. Actually, since he conquered Kabul, he had always been bent on subduing India, but for many reasons, he could not invade India before 1519.

The First Expedition (1519)

In 1519, Babur gathered an army and marched onto Bajour. He defeated the Yusufzais, an Afghan clan. He captured Bajour and Swat. Then he advanced to Bhera on the west of the Jhelum. River and captured it without any problem.

Babur reached as far as the Chenab. His ministers advised him to send an ambassador to Ibrahim Lodhi, the King of Delhi, demanding the restoration of the country, which belonged to the Turks. So, acting on the advice, he sent an ambassador to Ibrahim. His ambassador was detained at Lahore by Daulat Khan Lodhi and came back empty handed after many months.

Babur came to know about a revolt in his own kingdom, so he went back to Kabul.

The Second Expedition

In September 1519, Babur again attacked India. This time, he could reach Peshawar and then went back.

The Third Expedition

During his third expedition, Babur occupied Sialkot in Punjab. Then he had to go to Kandhar to suppress a revolt.

The Fourth Expedition

In 1524, Babur attacked India again. He was invited by Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Governor of Punjab. When Babur reached Lahore, he found that the Delhi army had already turned out Daulat Khan Lodhi. The Delhi army tried to stop Babur, but was defeated. Thus, Babur captured Lahore. Then he marched forward and occupied Jallundhar and Dipalpur. Daulat Khan Lodhi helped him. Babur gave Jallundhar and Sultanpur to Daulat Khan Lodhi and Lahore to Alam Khan. Daulat Khan Lodhi was not happy with this. He started to make plans against Babur. His own son, Dilawar Khan, told this to Babur. Now, Babur took away Sultanpur from Daulat Khan and gave to Dilawar Khan. After making all arrangements, Babur went back to Kabul.

As soon as Babur went back, Daulat Khan Lodhi captured Sultanpur and Lahore.

The Battle of Panipat (1526)

Babur set out for the conquest of India. In Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi opposed him with 40,000 soldiers. Babur defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi and made him a prisoner. Thus, he captured Lahore. He stayed in Lahore for sometime and then advanced to Delhi via Sirhind. He had 12,000 soldiers and powerful artillery.

Ibrahim Lodhi, the King of Delhi, came out of Delhi with 100,000 soldiers and many elephants to give battle to Babur. The Delhi army came straight on, at a quick march, without a halt from the start.

Both of the armies met on the historic plains of Panipat.

Babur had put seven hundreds carts in front of his army. This was a very wise step to save his soldiers from arrows of enemy. Between the carts, there had been installed cannons. He had famous gunners, like Mustafa and Ustad Ali. He put the right wing of his army near the city of Panipat. His army dug ditches in front of left wing of his army and covered these ditches with leaves etc. He kept his horsemen on both sides of his army. Thus, Babur was perfectly ready for the battle.

For eight days, no one attacked. At last, on April 21, 1526 A.D. they came to a clash.

Ibrahim’s war elephants were more a source of weakness than a source of strength against Babur’s scientific combination of cavalry and artillery.

Just like a mad crowd, the Delhi army attacked on Babur’s army. When Babur’s artillery started to fire, the Delhi soldiers took to their heels. Ibrahim’s war elephants crushed their own soldiers.

When Ibrahim’s war elephants were crushing its own army, Babur’s horsemen attacked on the Delhi army.

In a half-day, 15,000 soldiers were killed in the battlefield. Ibrahim Lodhi was one of them. The battlefield became an uncanny spot, which no man dared pass after dark.

In spite of the superior numerical strength of Ibrahim’s armies, he was defeated. The result was that the Kingdom of Delhi and Agra fell into the hands of Babur.

After the battle of Panipat, Babur captured Delhi and Agra immediately.

The Battle of Kanwah (1527 A.D.)

The victory of Panipat made Babur the ruler of Delhi. It was necessary to defeat Rana Sanga of Mewar, if Babur wanted to become the ruler of India. Rana Sanga himself had the ambition to occupy the throne of Delhi itself.

Actually, Rana Sanga was one of the people, who sent invitation to Babur to invade India. Rana Sanga thought that Babur would went back to Kabul after destroying the Delhi Kingdom. Rana Sanga promised to attack Delhi in order to help Babur, when the later would be fighting against Ibrahim Lodhi. Rana Sanga broke the agreement with Babur and did not help him. Even without the help of Rana Sanga, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and now he was settled in India. This saddened Rana Sanga. He wanted to reestablish the Hindu rule. It was possible only after defeating Babur. So, the battle between Babur and Rana Sanga was unavoidable.

In 1527, Rana Sanga advanced with about 90,000 soldiers and 500 elephants to Biana. On the other hand, Babur also marched towards Fatehpur Sikri. Rana Sanga’s army defeated the Advance-guard of Babur.

On March 16, 1527, Babur attacked Rana Sanga with heavy artillery fire, near Kanwah (also known as Khanua), about 10 miles far from Sikri. There were about 40,000 soldiers in Babur’s army.

After an obstinate battle, Rana Sanga was defeated and Babur became the Victor of Kanwah. Rana Sanga ran away. He died in January 1528.

The Battle of Chanderi (1528)

From Kanwah, Babur advanced to Chanderi, which was a stronghold of the Rajputs under a powerful chief Medini Rai. Babur reached Chanderi on January 20, 1528 and besieged the fort, where Medini Rai had taken shelter with his 5,000 followers. The Rajputs were determined to fight to the finish. Their women burnt themselves. Almost all the Rajputs lost their lives in the battlefield.

On January 29, 1528, Babur captured the Fort of Chanderi.

The Battle of Ghagra (1529)

The Afghans were still to be subdued. Mahmud Lodhi, a brother of Ibarahim Lodhi, had fled and taken refuge in Bihar. Then he went to Banaras and from there to Chunar. At last, he took refuge in Bengal. Babur decided to put an end to the Afghan menace and marched towards Bengal. On May 6, 1529, the battle of Ghagra was fought and the Afghans were defeated.

Babur’s Death (1530)

Babur died on December 26, 1530. He was buried in Kabul. It was his last desire. At the time of his death, Babur was hardly 48 years of age.

The Lodhi Dynasty

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

‘Lodhi’ is a clan of Afghans. Bahlol Lodhi was the founder of the Lodhi Dynasty. He belonged to the Lodhi clan. So, this dynasty is called the ‘Lodhi Dynasty.

When Bahlol Lodhi became the King of Delhi, India was already divided into many independent states. Gujrat, Malwa, Jaunpur and Bengal were independent states. Lahore, Dipalpur and Sirhind were under the control of Bahlol Lodhi himself.

Bahlol Lodhi

Bahlol Lodhi was born of a fighting clan. He was ambitious and determined to restore the strength of the Kingdom.

His grandfather Malik Bahram migrated to Multan during the reign of Firoz Tughluq. Malik Bahram worked under Malik Mardan Daulat, the Governor of Multan. In 1419, Bahlol’s uncle Sultan Shah was appointed the Governor of Sirhind by Khizar Khan and also given the title of Islam Khan. Islam Khan married his daughter to Bahlol Lodhi. He also nominated Bahlol as his heir. Thus, after the death Islam Khan, Bahlol Lodhi became the Governor of Sirhind. King Mohammad Shah bestowed upon him Dipalpur and Lahore.

When King Alam Shah retired to Badaon, Bahlol Lodhi became the King Delhi on April 19, 1451.

Bahlol Lodhi occupied Jaunpur, Mewat, Sambhal, Koil, Rewari, Etawah and Chandawar.

Sikandar Lodhi

His son Nizam Khan succeeded Bahlol Lodhi. Nizam Khan took up the title of Sikandar Shah. There were many chiefs, who wanted to put Barbak Shah, the elder brother of Sikandar Lodhi, on the throne. It is said that Sikandar’s mother was the daughter of a goldsmith; so many chiefs were against Sikandar. However, Sikandar Lodhi became the King in 1489.

After becoming the King, Sikandar attacked on his elder brother Barbak Shah, who was the ruler of Jaunpur and defeated him. Barbak Khan ran away to Badaon. He was pursued there and ultimately made to surrender. Sikandar put him once again on the throne of Jaunpur, but litter power was left in his hands.

Religious policy of Sikandar Lodhi

Sikandar Lodhi ordered to destroy the Hindu temples of Mathura. Mosques were constructed in their places. The idols of Hindu gods were given to butchers, who made them into meat weights.

A Brahman of Bengal maintained that Islam and Hinduism were both true and God could be approached by following any one of them. The Brahman was ordered to embrace Islam, because he himself admitted the truth of Islam. As the Brahman refused to embrace Islam, he was put to death.

Sikandar Lodhi also broke the sacred images of the Jawalamukhi temple at Nagarkot. During his reign, the Hindus were not allowed to have their bath on the banks of Jamuna.

Sikandar died on November 21, 1517.

Ibrahim Lodhi

After the death of Sikandar Lodhi, his eldest son Ibrahim Lodhi became the King.

Some the chiefs put Jalal Khan, a younger brother of Ibrahim, on the throne of Jaunpur. Ibrahim himself attacked on Jaunpur. Jalal Khan fled towards Agra. Ibrahim Lodhi was chasing him. Then, Jalal Khan took refuge with the King of Gwalior. When Ibrahim captured the fort of Gwalior, Jalal Khan fled towards Malwa. Some of landlords captured Jalal Khan and handed over to Ibrahim. He was put to death by the order of Ibrahim Lodhi.

Though Ibrahim Lodhi was a brave man, but he was not a wise person. He unwisely followed a policy of suppression towards some powerful chiefs. By this, he lost the sympathy of the chiefs.

Even the ordinary people were not happy with him. When discontent arose, and revolt sprang up, he endeavoured to reduce the rising conflagration by the blood of some of the leading chiefs.

In this situation, Avadh, Jaunpur and Bihar became independent states. Daulat Khan Lodhi also became the independent ruler of Punjab

It was under these circumstances that Alam Khan, a uncle of Ibrahim, and Daulat Khan Lodhi sent an invitation to Babur to invade India. Daulat Khan Lodhi thought that he could use Babur as a tool in establishing his own power in Punjab. Alam Khan wanted to be put on the throne of Delhi.

In 1524, Babur captured Lahore and gave the fiefs of Jallandhar and Sultanpur to Daulat Khan Lodhi. When Daulat Khan Lodhi did not behave well, these were taken away from him and given to Dilawar Khan, son of Daulat Khan.

After making arrangements for the administration of Punjab, Babur returned to Kabul. Now, Daulat Khan Lodhi took away the fief of Sultanpur from his son and turned out Alam Khan from Dipalpur.

Under these circumstances, Babur again attacked India with only 12,000 soldiers. First of all, he defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi. Then, he marched towards Delhi via Sirhind. Ibrahim Lodhi came out of Delhi to give battle to Babur. The opposing armies met on the historic plains of Panipat on April 21, 1526.

15,000 soldiers were killed in the battlefield. Ibrahim Lodhi was one of them.

The battle of Panipat ended the Lodhi Dynasty and placed the Delhi empire in Babur’s hands.

The Sayyid Dynasty

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Khizar Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty. He was a Sayyid, so this dynasty is called the Sayyid Dynasty. This dynasty ruled for 37 years. There were only four rulers of the Sayyid Dynasty.

During this dynasty, the extent of the Delhi Kingdom had been reduced to a small principality. The authority of the Sayyid Dynasty was limited to a few districts round Delhi.

Khizar Khan

Khizar Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty. When got possession of Delhi, his position was so weak that he did not take up the title of King. He worked like a viceroy of Timur-e-Lang. Khizar Khan sent his tribute to Timur, and after the death of Timur, to his successor, Shah Rukh.

Khizar Khan sent some expeditions to collect the revenue. He sent his army against Har Singh, the ruler of Katehar in 1414. In July 1416, an army was sent to Bayana and Gwalior to collect the revenue. In 1420, Khizar Khan sent an army to Koil and Etawah to collect the tribute.

Thus, the chronicles of the Sayyid Dynasty are chiefly a history of expeditions for colleting the revenue by military force.

On May 20, 1421, Khizar Khan died.

Mubarak Shah

After the death of Khizar Khan, his son Mubarak Shah became the ruler of Delhi and took up the title of Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah. His reign was as uneventful as that of his father, though he had to suppress the revolt of Jasrath Khokhar.

On February 20, 1424, he was killed when he was going to Mubarakabad.

Mohammad Shah

After the death of Mubarak Shah, Mohammad Shah became the ruler of Delhi. During the reign of Mohammad Shah, the affairs of the Kingdom grew day by day more and more confused and it so happened that the authority of Mohammad Shah did not extend beyond Panipat.

In 1440-41, Mahmud Shah Khilji of Malwa marched towards Delhi. Mohammad Shah asked Bahlol Lodhi, the Governor of Sirhind, to help him. Bahlol Lodhi came forward to help Mohammad Shah. Bahlol Lodhi and Mahmud Shah Khilji confronted one another between Tughaluquabad and the city of Delhi. The battle began at noon and lasted until nightfall. Then the negotiation started and the army of Mahmud started to retreat. Bahlol Lodhi attacked suddenly. The petty triumph of Bahlol Lodhi made Mohammad Shah very happy. He honoured him by styling him as his son. He bestowed upon Bahlol Lodhi Dipalpur and Lahore.

Later, Bahlol Lodhi attacked on Delhi, but failed to capture it.

In 1444, Mohammad Shah died.

Alam Shah

After the death of Mohammad Shah, his son Ala-ud-Din became the ruler and took up the title of Alam Shah.

Alam Shah decided to live in Badaon instead of living at Delhi and in 1448, he retired to Badaon permanently. He gave himself up completely to the pursuit of pleasure.

Alam Shah appointed one of his relatives as the Governor of Delhi, but there was a quarrel about this in Delhi. Bahlol Lodhi was invited to solve the problem. Bahlol Lodhi wrote a letter to Alam Shah at Badaon. Alam Shah replied that he had neither fruit nor profit of sovereignty.

As mentioned earlier, Mohammad Shah, the father of Alam Shah, styled Bahlol Shah as his son. Now, Alam Shah himself freely and cheerfully resigned his throne to Bahlol Lodhi as to an elder brother.

Thus, on April 19, 1451, Bahlol Lodhi ascended the throne. This was the end of Sayyid Dynasty.

Alam Shah continued to live in Badaon till his death in 1478 A.D.

Successors of Firoz Shah Tughluq

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

After the death of Firoz Shah Tughluq, there were six kings of this dynasty from 1388 to 1412: –

  1. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq Shah second (1388 A.D.)
  2. Abu-Bakar (1389 to 1390)
  3. Mohammad Second (1390 to 1394)
  4. Sikandar (1394)
  5. Mahmud and Nasrat (1394 to 1398)
  6. Mahmud (1398 to 1412)

After the death of Firoz, Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq Shah second became the King. He was a grand son of Firoz. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq Shah second was killed. Then, Abu Bakar Shah became the King on February 19, 1989.

A conspiracy was hatched against Abu Bakar and when he came to know of it, he retired to Meerat.

Now, Nasir-ud-Din Mohammad became the King on August 13, 1390. Nasir-ud-Din Mohammad made Abu Bakar a prisoner and sent him to Meerat, where he died soon afterwards.

Nasir-ud-Din Mohammad died on January 20, 1394.
On January 22, 1394, his son became the King under the title of Ala-ud-Din Sikandar Shah. He fell sick immediately after his accession and died on March 8, 1394.

Then, Prince Mahmud, the youngest son of Nasir-ud-Din Mohammad became the King and took up the title of Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Tughluq.

Some of the chiefs put forward Nusrat Khan, a grandson of Firoz Shah Tughluq, as a rival claimant to the throne. Thus, the two Kings arrayed in hostile camps and the crown was tossed to and fro like a shuttlecock between the contending factions.

Towards the end of the year 1397, the news came that the army of Timur had crossed the Indus and laid siege to Uchch.

In 1398, Nusrat was kicked out of Delhi.

In 1398, Amir Timur-e-Lang invaded India. After the departure of Timur, Nusrat Shah occupied Delhi, but he was driven out.

Timur completed the dissolution of the Tughluq Dynasty, the vitality of which had already been sapped by internal cankers.

In February 1413, Mahmud Shah died at Kaithal. After his death, the nobles transferred their allegiance to Daulat Khan Lodhi, the military governor of the Doab. In March 1414, Khizar Khan besieged Daulat Khan in Siri with an army of 60,000 horses. Daulat Khan held out for four months and then surrendered. Khizar Khan entered Delhi as its sovereign on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid Dynasty.

Thus, the Tughluq Dynasty came to an end.

Firoz Shah Tughluq

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Mohammad Tughluq had no son. When he died on March 20, 1351, there was disorder in the camp, which was plundered by the rebels of Sindh, and Mongol mercenaries, who had been hired by Mohammad Tughluq to fight against Taghi.

In this situation, Firoz was approached to ascend the throne. He hesitated but when the nobles put pressure on him, he agreed to become the King of Delhi. He was declared the King in a camp near Thatta on March 23, 1351.

Firoz Shah Tughluq was a cousin of Mohammad Tughluq and a son of Rajab. Rajab was Mohammad Tughluq’s uncle. Firoz Shah Tughluq’s mother was a princess of Dipalpur. Mohammad Tughluq loved Firoz.

In Delhi, a sister of Mohammad Tughluq put her own son, Dawar-Malik, on the throne, but she could not get any support from the chiefs. Then, Khawaja-e-Jahan, a deputy of the late King, proclaimed a boy as the son of Mohammad Tughluq and put him on the throne, but he could not find any support for him and surrendered.

Expeditions against Bengal

During the rule of Mohammad Tughluq, Bengal became independent. When Firoz Shah Tughluq became the King of Delhi, Shamas-ud-Din Iliyas Shah was the ruler of Bengal. Shamas-ud-Din Iliyas made himself the master of Eastern and Western Bengal.

In November 1353, Firoz Shah Tughluq marched from Delhi towards Bengal at the head of 70,000 horses. Iliyas took refuge into the fort of Ikdala.

Firoz Shah Tughluq besieged the fort of Ikdala. Though, he defeated the Iliyas, but Firoz did not take full advantage of his hard-earned victory and went back to Delhi in September 1354 without annexing Bengal. Some historians say that Firoz decided to go back on account of the cries of the women in the besieged fort. Others say that he was afraid of the disasters that might come on account of the beginning of the rainy season. But one thing is very clear. This invasion only resulted in the confession of weakness.

After the death of Iliyas, his son Sikandar Shah became the ruler of Bengal. In 1359, Firoz again attacked Bengal. Like his father, Sikandar Shah took refuge into the fort of Ikdala and gave hard resistance. When the rains came and the territory was flooded, Firoz came to terms with Sikandar Shah, which were favourable to the Bengal ruler.

Thus, the second Bengal expedition of Firoz Shah was as useless as the previous one. It merely exhibited once more his weakness.

Expedition against Jajnagar

When Firoz was coming back to Delhi, he marched towards Jajnagar. The Hindu ruler of Jajnagar ran away. The Delhi army destroyed the Hindu temples. The idols were thrown into the sea. Many idols were sent to Delhi to be trodden under foot by Muslims.

Then, Firoz called back the ruler of Jajnagar and his territories were restored to him on the condition that he would send every year a number of elephants to Firoz.

On his route to Nagpur, Firoz lost his way in jungles. For six months, nothing was known about his whereabouts. A large number of soldiers died in those dense jungles.

Expedition against Nagarkot

In 1337, Firoz Shah Tughluq besieged the fort of Nagarkot. After fighting for six months, the local ruler surrendered. Firoz entered into the famous Jawalamukhi Temple of Kangra. Its idols were broken and their pieces were mixed with flesh and blood of the cow. Some of the idols were sent as trophies to Medina.


Firoz was coronated in a camp in Sindh. He thought that it was necessary to re-conquer Sindh. So, in 1361 A.D., he marched towards Thatta, the capital of Sindh, with 90,000 cavalry, 480 elephants, 5,000 boats etc. His army suffered on account of the outbreak of famine and an epizootic disease. About three-fourths of his army was destroyed in this manner. Now, he decided to retreat to Gujarat. He lost his way on account of the treachery of the guides. He drifted into the Rann of Kuchchh. For about six months, nothing was known about the whereabouts of Firoz and whole of his army.

Meanwhile, his able minister Khan-e-Jahan Maqbul sent fresh troops to Firoz and it was with the help of those troops that Firoz could attack Sindh in 1363. The Delhi army defeated the ruler of Sindh.

But his expedition to Sindh, like his Bengal campaign, revealed his lack of military ability and tactical skill.

Death of Firoz Shah Tughluq

Mohammad Khan, a son of Firoz, devoted all his time to pleasures. Firoz tried to create more interest for work in the Prince but in vain. Some of the nobles organized rebellion against the authourity of Mohammad Khan. Mohammad Khan was obliged to fight. Firoz fought against him. Mohammad Khan was defeated and he ran away.

Firoz Shah appointed his grandson, Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq Shah second, as his heir and also conferred upon him the royal title. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq second was son of Fateh Khan, the eldest son of Firoz, who died in 1374.

On September 20, 1388, at the age of 80, Firoz Shah Tughluq died.

Mohammad Tughluq

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

After the death of Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq, his elder son Juna Khan became the King of Delhi in 1325 A.D. He took the title of Mohammad Tughluq.

When Khusro Shah was the King of Delhi, Juna Khan (Mohammad Tughluq) was appointed the Master of the Horse of Khusro Shah. When his father became the Emperor in 1320, Juna Khan was appointed the heir-apparent. He led two expeditions to Warangal in 1321 and in 1323.

It is said that Mohammad Tughluq was a very learned person. He was a careful student of religion. Although, he believed in Islam, at the same time, he was tolerant of other religions and participated in their religious ceremonies and festivals.

Mohammad Tughluq appointed lowborn persons to the highest offices in the administration. He also appointed Hindus to some of the highest offices in the state. He spent a lot of money on poets and scholars. He patronized even Hindu scholars and poets. He actually lavished the treasure on scholars and poets.

Increase in Taxes in Doab

In order to get more money to spend, he increased the rate of taxation in the Doab between the Ganges and the Jamuna rivers. The taxation was increased too much that the farmers were reduced to impotence, poverty and ruin.

Unfortunately, rains failed at the same time, and the famine continued for several years. Thousands of people perished.
The backs of the farmers were broken. Those who were rich became rebels. Other peasantry left their homes and shifted to other places. The King could not get too much money.

This made him angry. Annoyed at the failure of the revenue, the King sought after the wretched farmers, most of them Hindus, like wild beasts, ringed them in the jungles as if they were tigers, and closing in massacred them wholesale.

Then the relief measures of the King such as the giving of loans to the agriculturists, sinking of wells etc. came; but it was too late.

Transfer of Capital to Daulatabad

But Mohammad Tughluq’s most important project was the shifting his capital from Delhi to Devgiri, under the new name of Daulatabad.

Mohammad Tughluq wanted a capital safe from Mongolian invasions, which were constantly threatening Delhi. Devgiri/Daulatabad was considered safe from Mongolian invasions.

He provided all possible facilities for these who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. A broad road was constructed. Shady trees were planted in both sides of the road. A regular postal service was established between Delhi and Daulatabad.

The King Mohammad Tughluq bought the houses and dwellings from all the inhabitants of Delhi and paid the price for them. All the people, with their families and dependants, wives and children, men-servants and maidservants were forced to remove. The people, who had been natives and inhabitants of the land for many years and for many generations, were broken hearted. All the inhabitants of Delhi came out leaving behind their property and baggage, and the city was reduced to a desert. So complete was the ruin that not a cat or a dog was left among the buildings of the city, in its palaces, in its suburbs. Worn out with fatigue, many of them died on the road, and many who reached Daulatabad, could not endure the pain of exile. They died in misery.

At last, the ill -considered plan had failed. Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.

Death of Mohammad Tughluq

When Mohammad Tughluq was in Daulatabad, he heard of a revolt in Gujarat. Taghi was the leader of this revolt. Mohammad Tughluq himself went to Gujarat to suppress the revolt. He was successful in driving out Taghi from Gujarat. Taghi took refuge in Sindh.

Now, Mohammad Tughluq proceeded against Taghi, so he marched towards Sindh. But, Mohammad Tughluq fell ill there and died near Thatta in Sindh on March 20, 1351 A.D.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Nasir-ud-Din Khusro was the last king of the Khilji Dynasty. Actually he was once a Hindu, who was converted into the Islam.

Although, he became the King of Delhi, but many Turkish nobles were against him. The governor of the Punjab, Ghazi Malik, was one of them. He marched towards Dehli and reached near the city. The King Khusro Shah himself came forward to resist the invaders, but on September 5, 1320, he was killed in the battlefield. This was the end of the Khilji Dynasty.

When Khusro Shah died in the battlefield, Ghazi Malik declared himself the King of Delhi. Now, he was called Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq was a man of humble origin. His father was a Turk, but mother was a Jat woman from Punjab. He started his life as an ordinary trooper and rose to prominence by his ability and hard work. King Ala-ud-Din Khilji appointed him the Warden of the Marches and Governor of Dipalpur.

After defeating Khusro Shah, Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq caused an enquiry to be made whether there was any descendant of Ala-ud-‘din Khilji whom he could put on the throne of Delhi. It cannot be sure how far that inquiry was sincere and how far it was merely a show.

On September 8, 1320, he became the King of Delhi.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq tried to win over the confidence of the nobles and officers and to restore order in the empire. The supporters of Khusro Shah were ruthlessly exterminated. Reforms were introduced in other branches of Administration like justice and police, so that order and security prevailed in the country.

Expedition of Warangal

After the death of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, Pratap Rudra Deva second refused to pay the usual tribute to Delhi Government. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq sent an expedition under his son Juna Khan against Pratap Rudra Dev second in 1321. Juna Khan could not succeed and was defeated by Pratap Rudra Deva second.

Juna Khan was sent again against Pratap Rudra Deva in 1323. Juna Khan captured Bidar, and then marched on Warangal. This time, he defeated Pratap Rudra Deva second and made him prisoner.

While his way back to Delhi, Juna Khan attacked the kingdom of Utkala in Orissa and captured 50 elephants and many other valuable articles.

Expedition of Bengal

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq himself attacked on Bengal. He appointed Nasir-ud-Din as his viceroy of West Bengal and East Bengal was annexed to Delhi.

On his way back to Delhi, he defeated the King of Tirhut and Tirhut became a fief of the Delhi Sultanate.

Death of Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq

When Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq returned from Bengal, his son Prince Juna Khan gave him reception. A special wooden pavilion was erected near Delhi to give reception to the King. The King entered into the pavilion. When he was having a view of the elephants brought from Bengal, some elephants came into contact with the wooden pavilion and the entire pavilion fell. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq was crushed along with his Prince Mahmud Khan. The King was found bent over the body of Mahmud Khan as if trying to protect him.

It happened in 1325 A.D.

Most of the historians believe that the death of the King was the result of a conspiracy in which Juna Khan took part and was not due to any accident.

Later Khiljis

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)


Malik Kafur became to powerful that even the King Ala-ud-Din was merely a puppet in his hands. When Ala-ud-Din died, Malik Kafur placed Shahab-ud-Din Omar on the throne and himself the regent. Shahab-ud-Din was a son of Ala-ud-Din. He was just six years old. Now again, Malik Kafur was the most powerful man in the Kingdom.

Many princes of the royal blood were executed by orders of Malik Kafur. Khizar Khan and Shadi Khan, sons of Ala-ud-Din, were blinded. Mubarak Shah was made prisoner, but he succeeded in escaping.

After only thirty-six days after the death of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, Malik Kafur was killed with some of his associates.

Now, Mubarak Shah, another son of Ala-ud-Din was appointed the regent of the King Shahab-ud-Din, a six years old child. After 64 days, Shahab-ud-Din was killed and Mubarak Shah became the king. Some historians say that Shahab-ud-Din was blinded.

Mubarak Shah

After becoming the king, Mubarak Shah attended to nothing, but drinking, listening to music, merry-making, and distributing gifts. He came under the influence of Hasan who was originally a Hindu shepherd but was converted into Islam. He was raised to the position of Prime Minister and given the title of Khusro.

King Mubarak Shah allowed Khusro to have a separate cavalry of his own, 40,000 strong. Khusro used to live inside the palace.

On the night of April 14, 1320, the troops of Khusro entered the palace. Khusro himself caught hold of Mubarak Shah by the hair and one of his followers stabbed him to death. The head of Mubark Shah was cut off and thrown into the courtyard.

Nasir-ud-Din Khusro Shah

After killing Mubarak Shah, Khusro Shah became the king on April 15, 1320. He took up the title of Nasir-ud-Din Khusro Shah.

Many Turkish nobles were against to the Indian Muslims being in charge of the administration of the country. Ghazi Malik, the governor of the Punjab became the leader of these Turkish. Ghazi Malik marched and reached near Delhi. Khusro Shah himself fought. On September 5, 1320, he was killed in the battlefield. He could rule only for a few months.

Thus, the Khilji Dynasty came to an end.

The Khilji Dynasty: Ala-ud-Din Khilji

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Ala-ud-Din Khilji was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalal-ud-Din Khilji. It was Jalal-ud-Din Khilji, who brought up him, because Ala-ud-Din was fatherless.

When Jalal-ud-Din Khilji became the King, he appointed Ala-ud-Din as the governor of Kara. Later, he became the Governor of Avadh too, in addition to that of Kara. But it was not enough for him. He was an ambitious man. So, he killed his uncle and father-in-law.

Even the murder of Jalal-ud-Din was not enough to put Ala-ud-Din on the throne of Delhi. Malika Jahan, the wife of Jalal-ud-Din, heard that his husband was killed; he put her younger son Qadir Khan Rukum-ud-Din on the throne. She also called for her elder son Arkali Khan, who was in Multan.

Ala-ud-Din Khilji did not waste his time. He marched towards Delhi from Kara. While going to Delhi, he distributed small gold and silver coins among the people in order to get confidence of the people. Large gifts were given to all and sundry to make them forget that Ala-ud-Din killed his own father-in-law and the King.

Qadir Khan Rukum-ud-Din was not able to resist, so he ran away to Multan. Ala-ud-Din entered in Delhi and on October 3, 1296, he proclaimed himself the King of Delhi.

Then, he sent a large army to capture Rukum-ud-Din etc. In Multan, Ala-ud-Din’s men blinded Rukum-ud-Din and Arkali Khan. Malika Jahan, widow of Jalal-ud-Din and mother-in-law of Ala-ud-Din was imprisoned.

Mongol Invasions

The Mongols invaded India for many times. During the rule of Ala-ud-Din, Mongols attacked India more than a dozen times. The Mongol raids formed a source of constant anxiety and alarm to the Delhi Government for a long time.

The first Mongol invasion during the rule of Ala-ud-Din took place under the command of Amir Daud. The Mongols succeeded to enter Sindh and Punjab. An army under Ulugh Khan defeated the Mongols and they ran away.

Next time, the Mongols attacked under the command of Saldi. This time, they reached near Delhi and captured the fort Siri. Zafar Khan, a famous army officer of Ala-ud-Din, recaptured the fort. About 2,000 Mongols were captured and brought before the King.

But the famous Mongol invasion took place in 1299, when under the command of Qutlugh Khwaja, 2,00,000 Mongols attacked on India. This time they did not want just to rob the country. Now, they wanted to establish their own kingdom.

The Mongols did not plunder the people on the way to Delhi. They did not want to waste their energy doing this. This was a wise step. They succeeded to reach near Delhi.

The situation became very grave. The people of nearby areas entered into Delhi. There was no free space even in mosques.

Ala-ud-Din consulted his ministers and chiefs. Many of them said that it was impossible to say as to which side victory is likely to incline. They said that their own army had spent their lives in warfare with the Hindus only, and had not joined in battle with the Mongols. They suggested for a compromise.

Ala-ud-Din was not ready for it. He rejected their advice and said, “If I were to follow your advice how could I show my face, how could I go into my harem? No, come what may tomorrow, I must march into the battlefield”.

He ordered his army to attack under the command of Zafar Khan and Ulugh Khan. His army men attacked and fought very bravely.

It was very bad experience for the Mongols. They suffered a lot. Zafar Khan created so great terror in the minds of the Mongols that whenever their horsed refused to drink water, the Mongols would ask them if they had seen Zafar Khan.

Ala-ud-Din defeated the Mongols. Zafar Khan was killed in the battlefield. It was rather good news for Ala-ud-Din, because Zafar Khan was dangerous to Ala-ud-Din’s position.

In 1304, the Mongols attacked again, under the command of Ali Beg and Khwaja Tash. They reached near Amroha, but Gazi Tuglak defeated them.

In 1306, the Mongols crossed the Indus near Multan and proceeded towards the Himalyaas. Gazi Malik, the governor of Punjab defeated them. A large number of the Mongols were killed. About 50,000 Mongols were made prisoners including Kubak, the Mongol leader.

Next year, the Mongols invaded India again. In 1307, they invaded under the command of Iqbal Manda. They crossed the Indus, but Gazi Tuglak defeated them. Many Mongols were made prisoners and killed by elephants. The Mongols were so frightened by this punishment that they never appeared again in India. It was the last invasion by the Mongols.

Conquest of Gujarat

In 1297, Ala-ud-Din sent a huge army under the command of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to conquer Gujarat. Rai Karan Dev second was the ruler of Gujarat. He fought for sometimes and then ran away. Ala-ud-Din’s army captured the capital Anhilwara. The beautiful queen of Karan Dev second was made prisoner. She was taken away to Delhi. Ala-ud-Din married her.

Ala-ud-Din’s army plundered Gujarat and took away a large amount of booty. But, the greatest prize of all bagged in ‘Hazar Dinari’ slave, Malik Kafur, who became the prime minister of the King later.


Ranthambhor is a very famous fort of Rajputana. Qutb-ud-Din and Iltutmish conquered it, but now it was being ruled by a Rajput king, Hamir Dev.

In 1299, Ala-ud-Din sent an army under Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to capture the fort of Ranthambhor, but the Rajputs defeated them. Even Nusrat Khan was killed in the battlefield.

When Ala-ud-Din heard of this, he personally proceeded against Ranthambhor in 1301. The Rajputs fought bravely. It took a few months to capture Ranthambhor.

Conquest of Chittaurgarh

In 1303, Ala-ud-Din Khilji sent an expedition against Chittaurgarh, the capital of Mewar. The Guhil Rajput, Rana Ratan Singh, was the ruler of Mewar.

Two Rajput warriors Gora and Badal fought very bravely against the Delhi army. When further resistance became impossible, the Rajputs preferred death to disgrace. The Rajputs performed the Jauhar, a horrible rite, where the females set themselves in the funeral pyre. All the males died in the battlefield.

The Chittaurgarh was captured on August 26, 1303.

Conquest of Malwa

Malwa was under rule of Rai Mahlak Dev. In 1305, Ala-ud-Din Khilji sent an army to Malwa under Ain-ul-Mulk Multani. The Rajput King Rai Mahlak Dev opposed the invaders, but he was killed in the battlefield.

This victory helped the Delhi Army to occupy Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. By the end of 1306 A.D. practically the whole of Northern India came into the hands of Ala-ud-Din.

Conquest of the South

Now, Ala-ud-Din directed his attention towards the conquest of the South. He was the first Muslim king, who tried to invade the South. After the North had been brought under his control, it was natural for Ala-ud-Din to try for the extension of his influence over the South.

Ram Chandra Deva was the king of Devgiri. He gave refuge to Rai Karan Dev second, the fugitive ruler of Gujarat. Rai Karan Dev second made arrangements to marry Deval Devi, his daughter, to a Prince named Shankar. Shankar was the eldest son of Ram Chandra Deva, the King of Devgiri.
At that time, there were four main kingdoms in the South, Devgir, Telangana, Hoysala and Pandya kingdom.

In 1307, Ala-ud-Din sent an expedition against Devgiri under Malik Kafur, a slave. The King Ram Chandra Deva was defeated and was brought to Delhi. Ala-ud-Din treated Ram Chandra Deva with all honours. He even gave him a royal canopy and the style of King of kings. Ram Chandra Deva continued to rule Devgiri As a vassal of Ala-ud-Din Khilji.

The daughter of Kamla Devi, Deval Devi also was sent to Delhi, where she was married to Khizar Khan, son of Ala-ud-Din. Kamla Devi already was a wife of Ala-ud-Din.

In 1310, Ala-ud-Din’s army under Malik Kafur besieged Warangal, the capital of Telangana. Ram Chandra Deva of Devgiri gave all assistance to Malik Kafur. The King of Telangana, Pratap Rudra Deva was sued for peace. He gave Kafur 100 elephants, 7,000 horses and large quantities of jewels and coined money. He also agreed to send tribute to Delhi every year.

Then Malik Kafur was sent to Dwarsamudra, the capital of King Vir Vallabh, the Hoysala ruler. Vir Vallabh was defeated and made prisoner. The rich temples of the city were plundered and Malik Kafur got a lot of gold, silver, jewel and pearls from these temples. Vir Vallabh was brought to Delhi. Later, he could rule over Dwarsamudra only as a vassal of Delhi.

From Dwarsamudra, Malik Kafur marched towards Madura. Madura was the capital of Pandya Kingdom. Vir Pandya, the King of Madura abandoned his capital and ran away with his queens. Malik Kafur plundered the city. The main temple was destroyed and a mosque was built there. He got many elephants, 20,000 horses, 2,750 pounds of gold and lots of jewels. No such treasure had been brought to Delhi ever before.

In 1312, Malik Kafur attacked Devgiri again, because Shankar Deva, the successor of Ram Chandra, withheld the tribute promised by his father and tried to regain his independence. Shankar Deva was killed. His kingdom was captured.

Death of Ala-ud-Din Khilji

The success in the South made Malik Kafur so powerful that Ala-ud-Din became merely a puppet in his hands. Ala-ud-Din sent his wife and two sons, Khizar Khan and Shadi Khan, to jail, because Malik Kafur told him that they were conspiring against him.

In 1316, Ala-ud-Din Khilji died. It is said that Ala-ud-Din was poisoned by Malik Kafur.