Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Nasir-ud-Din Khusro was the last king of the Khilji Dynasty. Actually he was once a Hindu, who was converted into the Islam.

Although, he became the King of Delhi, but many Turkish nobles were against him. The governor of the Punjab, Ghazi Malik, was one of them. He marched towards Dehli and reached near the city. The King Khusro Shah himself came forward to resist the invaders, but on September 5, 1320, he was killed in the battlefield. This was the end of the Khilji Dynasty.

When Khusro Shah died in the battlefield, Ghazi Malik declared himself the King of Delhi. Now, he was called Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq was a man of humble origin. His father was a Turk, but mother was a Jat woman from Punjab. He started his life as an ordinary trooper and rose to prominence by his ability and hard work. King Ala-ud-Din Khilji appointed him the Warden of the Marches and Governor of Dipalpur.

After defeating Khusro Shah, Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq caused an enquiry to be made whether there was any descendant of Ala-ud-‘din Khilji whom he could put on the throne of Delhi. It cannot be sure how far that inquiry was sincere and how far it was merely a show.

On September 8, 1320, he became the King of Delhi.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq tried to win over the confidence of the nobles and officers and to restore order in the empire. The supporters of Khusro Shah were ruthlessly exterminated. Reforms were introduced in other branches of Administration like justice and police, so that order and security prevailed in the country.

Expedition of Warangal

After the death of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, Pratap Rudra Deva second refused to pay the usual tribute to Delhi Government. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq sent an expedition under his son Juna Khan against Pratap Rudra Dev second in 1321. Juna Khan could not succeed and was defeated by Pratap Rudra Deva second.

Juna Khan was sent again against Pratap Rudra Deva in 1323. Juna Khan captured Bidar, and then marched on Warangal. This time, he defeated Pratap Rudra Deva second and made him prisoner.

While his way back to Delhi, Juna Khan attacked the kingdom of Utkala in Orissa and captured 50 elephants and many other valuable articles.

Expedition of Bengal

Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq himself attacked on Bengal. He appointed Nasir-ud-Din as his viceroy of West Bengal and East Bengal was annexed to Delhi.

On his way back to Delhi, he defeated the King of Tirhut and Tirhut became a fief of the Delhi Sultanate.

Death of Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq

When Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq returned from Bengal, his son Prince Juna Khan gave him reception. A special wooden pavilion was erected near Delhi to give reception to the King. The King entered into the pavilion. When he was having a view of the elephants brought from Bengal, some elephants came into contact with the wooden pavilion and the entire pavilion fell. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq was crushed along with his Prince Mahmud Khan. The King was found bent over the body of Mahmud Khan as if trying to protect him.

It happened in 1325 A.D.

Most of the historians believe that the death of the King was the result of a conspiracy in which Juna Khan took part and was not due to any accident.