The Sayyid Dynasty

(Amrit Pal Singh ‘Amrit)

Khizar Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty. He was a Sayyid, so this dynasty is called the Sayyid Dynasty. This dynasty ruled for 37 years. There were only four rulers of the Sayyid Dynasty.

During this dynasty, the extent of the Delhi Kingdom had been reduced to a small principality. The authority of the Sayyid Dynasty was limited to a few districts round Delhi.

Khizar Khan

Khizar Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty. When got possession of Delhi, his position was so weak that he did not take up the title of King. He worked like a viceroy of Timur-e-Lang. Khizar Khan sent his tribute to Timur, and after the death of Timur, to his successor, Shah Rukh.

Khizar Khan sent some expeditions to collect the revenue. He sent his army against Har Singh, the ruler of Katehar in 1414. In July 1416, an army was sent to Bayana and Gwalior to collect the revenue. In 1420, Khizar Khan sent an army to Koil and Etawah to collect the tribute.

Thus, the chronicles of the Sayyid Dynasty are chiefly a history of expeditions for colleting the revenue by military force.

On May 20, 1421, Khizar Khan died.

Mubarak Shah

After the death of Khizar Khan, his son Mubarak Shah became the ruler of Delhi and took up the title of Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah. His reign was as uneventful as that of his father, though he had to suppress the revolt of Jasrath Khokhar.

On February 20, 1424, he was killed when he was going to Mubarakabad.

Mohammad Shah

After the death of Mubarak Shah, Mohammad Shah became the ruler of Delhi. During the reign of Mohammad Shah, the affairs of the Kingdom grew day by day more and more confused and it so happened that the authority of Mohammad Shah did not extend beyond Panipat.

In 1440-41, Mahmud Shah Khilji of Malwa marched towards Delhi. Mohammad Shah asked Bahlol Lodhi, the Governor of Sirhind, to help him. Bahlol Lodhi came forward to help Mohammad Shah. Bahlol Lodhi and Mahmud Shah Khilji confronted one another between Tughaluquabad and the city of Delhi. The battle began at noon and lasted until nightfall. Then the negotiation started and the army of Mahmud started to retreat. Bahlol Lodhi attacked suddenly. The petty triumph of Bahlol Lodhi made Mohammad Shah very happy. He honoured him by styling him as his son. He bestowed upon Bahlol Lodhi Dipalpur and Lahore.

Later, Bahlol Lodhi attacked on Delhi, but failed to capture it.

In 1444, Mohammad Shah died.

Alam Shah

After the death of Mohammad Shah, his son Ala-ud-Din became the ruler and took up the title of Alam Shah.

Alam Shah decided to live in Badaon instead of living at Delhi and in 1448, he retired to Badaon permanently. He gave himself up completely to the pursuit of pleasure.

Alam Shah appointed one of his relatives as the Governor of Delhi, but there was a quarrel about this in Delhi. Bahlol Lodhi was invited to solve the problem. Bahlol Lodhi wrote a letter to Alam Shah at Badaon. Alam Shah replied that he had neither fruit nor profit of sovereignty.

As mentioned earlier, Mohammad Shah, the father of Alam Shah, styled Bahlol Shah as his son. Now, Alam Shah himself freely and cheerfully resigned his throne to Bahlol Lodhi as to an elder brother.

Thus, on April 19, 1451, Bahlol Lodhi ascended the throne. This was the end of Sayyid Dynasty.

Alam Shah continued to live in Badaon till his death in 1478 A.D.